Home > Uncategorized > Judge Baltasar Garzon 5/10/10

Judge Baltasar Garzon 5/10/10

When I think of judges in my lifetime who have been truly great, the names that immediately come to mind are Thurgood Marshall, William Brennan, and William O. Douglas. Out of my own lack of awareness, I do not think of judges from outside the United States.
 
One name that does come to mind though is Judge Baltasar Garzon. Judge Garzon has been Spain’s chief criminal magistrate. In his role, Judge Garzon has been bold and fearless. He has defined the term heroic.
 
While he has gone after other big fish, the prosecution that has taken the cake was his pursuit of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, the Chilean dictator. Garzon sought Pinochet’s extradition to Spain to face criminal charges for violating international laws between 1973 and 1990.
 
Pinochet and his military overthrew the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende on September 11,1973. Thousands of Allende’s supporters were murdered, disappeared, imprisoned, tortured and driven into exile. This crime against humanity never faced criminal prosecution until Garzon’s actions in 1998.
 
On October 16,1998, Garzon had Pinochet arrested when Pinochet was in London recuperating from surgery. Pinochet claimed immunity from the jurisdiction of the English courts on the grounds that he was the head of the State of Chile when the alleged crimes were committed.
 
Remarkably, on November 25,1998, in its first judgment on the Pinochet case, the British House of Lords ruled that under international law the former head of state, Pinochet, could not claim immunity from the jurisdiction of the courts of another country to avoid facing charges that he had committed the international crime of torture. The House of Lords decision was based on the 1984 Convention Against Torture.
 
This was a landmark decision. The Convention Against Torture required states to prosecute or extradite any alleged torturer or anybody who had been complicit in torture. Ironically, in 1988, shortly before he left power, Pinochet personally decided that Chile should ratify the Convention Against Torture.
 
Garzon’s actions in 1998 were part of a broader effort by prosecutors in Spain, France, Belgium, and Switzerland. All those countries made extradition requests on Pinochet. During Pinochet’s rule, more than 3,000 people were murdered or disappeared. More than 1500 of the disappeared have never been accounted for.
 
We now know that Pinochet spearheaded a military operation known as Operation Condor. Operation Condor brought together military leaders from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uraguay. Later Brazil joined. Operation Condor was essentially an international death squad dedicated to the elimination of perceived enemies all over the world.
 
Among the most famous victims of Operation Condor were Orlando Letelier, the former Chilean Ambassador to the United Nations. He and his colleague Ronni Moffitt were murdered by a car bomb in Washington DC in 1976.
 
The previous head of Chile’s scret police, the DINA, Colonel Manuel Contreras Sepulveda confirmed Pinochet’s connections to the murder, torture and disappearances in Chile. In May 2005, while in prison, he explained that he reported directly to Pinochet without any intermediary.
 
The history of the Pinochet case is quite fascinating. Within a week of its first decision, the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords set aside the landmark judgment because it concluded one judge assigned should not have sat on the case. There was a rehearing. The second judgment was even more amazing than the first. The Lords concluded that the Torture Convention provided a universal jurisdiction to pursue torturers.
 
Still, after this second judgment, Pinochet was able to escape punishment. The British government terminated extradition proceeedings and after 16 months, Pinochet escaped back to Chile. Pinochet had used his deteriorating health and his advanced age as a way out.
 
Garzon deserves tremendous credit for the pursuit of a monster like Pinochet. No one else had the guts to go after Pinochet. Garzon did. In the process, The Pinochet case created a precedent which, at the least, has added a level of fear and insecurity for government torturers and their accomplices. Maybe that will make some think twice about torturing.
 
I would also like to point out that the full role of the United States in Operation Condor has never been clarified. We know that the U.S. was involved in the coup against Allende. Five days after the coup, Henry Kissinger told President Nixon “we helped them”. The dimensions of that help deserve full exposure.
 
Garzon now faces troubles of his own. In 2008, Garzon initiated an investigation into the crimes against humanity committed by the fascist forces led by Gen Franco during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. In a blatantly political effort led by fascists and their allies, Garzon was accused of exceeding his authority for opening the investigation. Garzon has been suspended as a magistrate. The suspension could last 20 years, effectively ending his legal career.
 
The Right accused Garzon of the crime of judicial prevarication. Because of a 1977 amnesty law, his enemies claim Garzon has no jurisdiction to investigate Spanish Civil War crimes. Again at issue is universal jurisdiction and whether crimes against humanity can be amnestied or subject to a statute of limitations.
 
So is the crime the disappearances or the investigation?
 
I will include an open letter to the Spanish judiciary regarding Garzon signed by lawyers, jurists, intellectuals, and artists. Thousands of people in Spain have been demonstrating in support of Garzon. Anti-fascist Americans have a stake in this case too.

…………….

Open Letter to Spanish Judiciary Authorities in Solidarity with Justice Baltasar Garzón

Judges of the Supreme Court, Criminal chamber

General Prosecutor of the State Cándido Conde-Pumpido Tourón

As jurists, lawyers, judges, academics and human rights defenders of different nationalities signing below, we are writing to you in order to express our perplexity regarding the decision on 3 February 2010 of the Investigative Judge of the Second Chamber of the Supreme Court in the special case Nº: 20048/2009. The judge decided to continue the judicial investigation against Justice Baltasar Garzón, allegedly responsible of the offence of judicial prevarication [1].
The criminal complaint was filed against Justice Garzón for trying to fulfill the obligation of the Spanish State to investigate crimes against humanity committed during Franco’s dictatorship, in particular enforced disappearances. He is allegedly responsible of disregarding the 1977 Amnesty Law, of violating the principle of non retroactivity of criminal law and the principle of legality and prescription of criminal action.

On 31 October 2008, the United Nations Human Rights Committee has expressed its concerns about the existing obstacles that Spanish victims have been fighting against in order to obtain truth, justice and reparation. The Committee has also called Spanish authorities to take the necessary measures to nullify the 1977 Amnesty Law and to guarantee the imperceptibility of crimes against humanity. Moreover, the Committee has asked the Government to create an independent commission to determine the historic truth about human right violations which took place during the Civil War and Franco’s regime, and that will guarantee the localisation, exhumation and identification of the victims’ remains, and its restitution to their families.

The so-called law “of Historical Memory” of 2007 has not taken into account the appropriate and sufficient measures in favor of victims. Contrary to what the investigative judge has stated in the decision against Garzón, the above mentioned law allows him to act in favor of the victims, for example by requesting the exhumation of the remains. Indeed the law establishes that it is “compatible with the exercise of the right to remedy and access to ordinary and extraordinary judicial proceedings, as established in national law or in international treaties and conventions ratified by Spain”.

Enforced disappearances are among the gravest crimes which cannot be prescribed nor be granted with amnesty without attempting against international law, which is part of the Spanish judicial system.

The crime of illegal detention, without giving information of the detainee’s location, or the crime of enforced disappearances, are crimes of continuous nature, that are ongoing until it is known what happened to the victims; that is why these crimes cannot be object of criminal prescription. When these disappearances have been committed in a systematic, massive and generalized manner, as it occurred during the Civil War and Franco’s dictatorship, they are considered as crimes against humanity and hence cannot be subject amnesty nor pardon. For this type of crimes, the principle of non-retroactivity in criminal law cannot apply since the prohibition of such crimes already existed under international customary law (jus cogens) at the time of the facts and, the principle of legality, is formed by national provisions and international human rights law.

The investigative judge adds against Justice Garzón: “Of course, altruist motives, as the laudable wish of palliating the pain of the family of victims of horrendous crimes, do not exonerate, or even attenuate, the possible criminal responsibility of [judge Garzón]”.

Justice Garzón certainly acts within his obligation towards justice and human rights. Altruism can be part of his personal convictions, but what is at stake here is the obligation of the State of Spain to respect the rights of victims of Franco’s dictatorship as well as to fulfill its international obligations as regards human rights.

The investigative judge reproaches Justice Garzón for not having considered the denounced facts as related to political crime and for disregarding the application of the 1977 Amnesty Law. Nevertheless, the same law states in its article 1 that it is not applicable concerning facts that presuppose “grave violence against the life or personal integrity of several persons”.

The International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, ratified by Spain on 24 September 2009, states in its article 13 that “the offence of enforced disappearance shall not be regarded as a political offence or as an offence connected with a political offence or as an offence inspired by political motives”.

In its article 24, the Convention considers as a ’victim’ “the disappeared person and any individual who has suffered harm as the direct result of an enforced disappearance” and states that “each victim has the right to know the truth regarding the circumstances of the enforced disappearance, the progress and results of the investigation and the fate of the disappeared person”. Finally it reiterates the obligation of each State Party to take “all appropriate measures to search for, locate and release disappeared persons and, in the event of death, to locate, respect and return their remains”.

We therefore express to you, dear judges, our perplexity in relation to the use of the offence of judicial prevarication against Justice Baltasar Garzón. Indeed, a judicial officer has always some scope for discretion in the implementation of law. If he does so in order to fulfill the State’s human rights obligations, his acts cannot be considered as irrational or contrary to law, otherwise damaging the basic principles of the administration of criminal justice concerning the investigation, prosecution, reparation and prevention of all types of crimes, in particular crimes of international character, as in the present case.

We would also like to express our recognition of Justice Baltasar Garzón’s work in favour of victims’ rights to truth, justice and reparation, not only in Spain but beyond Spanish borders. He became thereby a very important defender and promoter of international criminal law in the past years, enjoying now a well-earned worldwide recognition.

We hope that you can reverse Francisco Quevedo’s maxim “where there is little justice, it is dangerous to be right”, and contribute to have in Spain a lot of justice and a lot of reason, allowing the rights of victims and their families to be fully respected. We also call you to support judges like Baltasar Garzón, in their actions that enable Spain to fulfill its obligations under international human rights law, and that contribute to the well being of Spanish people but also of the humanity as a whole.

Respectfully yours.

SIGNATORY ORGANISATIONS

Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos de España (APDHE) – ESPAÑA
Comisión Española de Ayuda al Refugiado (CEAR) – ESPAÑA
Institut de Drets Humans de Catalunya (IDHC) – ESPAÑA
Instituto de Estudios Políticos para América Latina y África (IEPALA) – ESPAÑA
Justicia y Paz – ESPAÑA
Liga Española Pro Derechos Humanos – ESPAÑA
Movimiento por la Paz, el Desarme y la Libertad (MPDL) – ESPAÑA
Paz y Cooperación – ESPAÑA
Mundubat – ESPAÑA
UNESCO Etxea – ESPAÑA
ATTAC – ESPAÑA
Comunal Laurita Allende en España de PSCh – ESPAÑA
Asociación para las Naciones Unidas en España (ANUE) – ESPAÑA
Asociación para la Defensa de la Libertad Religiosa (ADLR) – ESPAÑA
Plataforma de Mujeres Artistas contra la Violencia de Género – ESPAÑA
Coordinadora Estatal de Asociaciones Solidarias con el Sáhara (CEAS-Sáhara)
Asociacion Española para el Derecho Internacional de los Derechos Humanos (AEDIDH) – ESPAÑA
Asociación por los Derechos Humanos en Afganistán (ASDHA) – ESPAÑA
IPES Elkartea. Instituto de Estudios Sociales, Navarra – ESPAÑA
Voluntarios Comunidad Parroquial Santo Domingo de la Calzada. Cañada Real. Madrid. – ESPAÑA
Center For Constitutional Rights – USA
Lawyer’s Rights Watch Canada (LRWC) – CANADA
Syndicat de la Magistrature Français – FRANCIA
Conférence du Barreau de Paris – FRANCIA
Grupo Belga por la Justicia y la Paz en Guatemala – BÉLGICA
Unione Forense per la Tutela dei Diritti dell’Uomo (UFTDU) – ITALIA
Asociación Servicios de Promoción Laboral (ASEPROLA) – COSTA RICA
Ligue Djiboutienne des Droits Humains (LDDH) – DJIBOUTI
Asociación Por Derechos Humanos (APRODEH) – PERÚ
Asamblea Permanente por los Derechos Humanos (APDH) – ARGENTINA
Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales (CELS) – ARGENTINA
Centro para la Acción Legal en Derechos Humanos (CALDH) – GUATEMALA
Comisión de Derechos Humanos de Guatemala (CDHG) – GUATEMALA
Comisión Ecuménica de Derechos Humanos (CEDHU) – ECUADOR
Frente Ecuatoriano de Derechos Humanos (FEDHU) – ECUADOR
Comisión de Derechos Humanos de El Salvador (CDHES) – EL SALVADOR
Centro de Derechos y Desarrollo – (CEDAL) – PERÚ
Coordinadora Nacional de Derechos Humanos (CNDDHH) – PERÚ
Centro de Políticas Públicas y Derechos Humanos – Perú EQUIDAD – PERU
Coalición Salvadoreña para la Corte Penal Internacional (CSCPI) – EL SALVADOR
Corporación Colectivo de Abogados “José Alvear Restrepo” (CCAJAR) – COLOMBIA
Instituto Latinoamericano de Servicios Legales Alternativos (ILSA) – COLOMBIA
Comité Permanente por la Defensa de Derechos Humanos (CPDH) – COLOMBIA
Organización Femenina Popular – COLOMBIA
Organización Mundial contra la Tortura (OMCT)
Frente Nacional de Resistencia Popular – HONDURAS
Bloque Popular Honduras – HONDURAS
Fundación Regional de Asesoría en Derechos Humanos (INREDH) – ECUADOR
Comité de Acción Jurídica (CAJ) – ARGENTINA
Centro Nicaragüense de Derechos Humanos (CENIDH) – NICARAGUA
Centro de Iniciativas Democráticas (CIDEM) – PANAMÁ
FIAN Internacional
Federación Internacional de Derechos Humanos (FIDH)
Associació per a la recuperació de la memòria històrica de Catalunya (ARMHC)
Fédération euroméditérannéenne contre les disparitions forcées (FEMED)
Collectif des Familles de Disparu(e)s en Algérie (CFDA)

INDIVIDUAL SIGNATURES

Louis Joinet, ex magistrado de la corte de casación francesa y ex relator especial de la ONU para Haití y en la lucha contra la impunidad.
Carla del Ponte, actual embajadora de Suiza en Argentina.
Roberto Garretón Merino, abogado chileno, ex-relator especial y experto de la ONU, y miembro de la Asemblea General de la OMCT.
Luis Acebal Monfort, Vicepresidente Asociación Pro DD HH1 de España (APDHE).
Roberto Saviano. Escritor. Autor de Gomorra.
Inma Chacón, Escritora y Profesora de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid
Javier Mujica. Defensor de Derechos Humanos.
Mario Lana. Presidente Liga Italiana. ITALIA.
Rosa María Ayala Sancha. Defensora DD HH
Carlos Ballesteros García, Profesor Universidad Pontificia Comillas
Ana Barrero Tiscar, Fundación Cultura de Paz
Lionel Baudet Labbé, Presidente Comunal Laurita Allende en España
Andrew Buchan, Lawyer
Eric Alt, delegado del Syndicat de la magistrature à MEDEL (Magistrats européens pour la démocratie et les libertés) FRANCIA
Jorge Auat fiscal a cargo de la Unidad Fiscal de Coordinación y Seguimiento de las causas por violaciones a los Derechos Humanos cometidas durante el terrorismo de Estado (Procuración General de la Nación -ARGENTINA-).
Pablo Parenti, coordinador de la Unidad Fiscal de Coordinación y Seguimiento de las causas por violaciones a los Derechos Humanos cometidas durante el terrorismo de Estado (Procuración General de la Nación -ARGENTINA-).
Amelia M. Bayón Gimeno, APDHE
Mikel Berraondo López. Instituto de DD HH, Universidad de Deusto
Javier Blanco Belda. Defensor DD HH
Raquel Colera Cañas. Defensora DD HH
M. Isabel Córdoba Montaña, Defensora DD HH
Ana Mª Cañas Cortázar. Defensora DD HH
Paco Cascón Soriano. Educador, Defensor de DD HH
Raquel Colera Cañas. Defensora DD HH
Javier Chinchón Álvarez. Profesor de Derecho Internacional y Relaciones Internacionales
Paloma Cruz López. Defensora de DD HH
Bernardo Diaz Salina. Defensor DD HH
Julia Jaraiz. Defensora DD HH
Ana Etxenique. Vicepresidenta Confederación de Consumidores y Usuarios
Celia Fernández Aller. Profesora Derecho, Univ. Politécnica Madrid
José Miguel Fernández López. Defensor DD HH
Paula Fernández Martínez. Defensora DD HH
Ana María Flores Barraza. Directiva APDHE
José Antonio Gimbernat Ordeig, Presidente Federación de Asociaciones de Derechos Humanos – España
Katya Ruiz Jodrá, Defensora DD HH
Bienvenida Goikoechea Aldaz. Defensora DD HH
María Isabel Guijarro Atienza, Defensora DD HH
Mª Pilar Hernández Vázquez. Abogada. Defensora DD HH
Calo Iglesias. Educador para la Paz. Santiago de Compostela
Marisol Iturralde Roger. Directiva APDHE
Augusto Klappenbach Minotti. Ex-Rector Universidad. Argentina
Manuel León Rodríguez, Fundación Socialdemócratas
Pedro López López. Profesor Universidad Complutense.
Antonio López Pina. Catedrático de Derecho Constitucional. Universidad Complutense
Concepción Marino Canosa, Defensora DD HH
Fernando Mariño Menéndez, Director Instituto de Derecho Internacional, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid
María José Martín Antón. Defensora DD HH
Concepcion Martin Rey. Defensora DD HH
Asier Martinez de Bringas. Profesor de Derecho. Constitucional, Barcelona
Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Presidente, Fundación Cultura de Paz
Manuela Mesa Peinado. Directora de CEIPAZ-Fundación Cultura de Paz
Alicia Moreno Pérez. Abogada del Ilustre Colegio de Abogados de Madrid
Adriana Moscoso del Prado Hernández. Directiva APDHE
María Novo Villaverde. Catedrática de la Universidad Nacional a Distancia. Madrid
Carmen Oliart Delgado de Torres, Defensora de DD HH
Manuel Ollé Sesé. Abogado. Presidente APDHE
Rosa Orta Álvarez. Defensora DD HH
Annarita Palumu. Defensora DD HH
Cristina Pascual Álvaro. Defensora DD HH
Francisco José Pascual Díez. Profesor. Defensor DDHH
Fernando Pedrós Pérez. Defensor DD HH
Justo Pérez Corral. Defensor DD HH
Lilian Ana Pertovt, Defensora DD HH
Oscar Peyrou. Defensor DD HH
Annegret Pietsch. Defensora DD HH
José Luis Pitarch Bartolomé. Directiva APDHE. Profesor de Derecho Constitucional, Univ. de Valencia.
Isabel Pizarro Ponce de la Torre. Defensora DD HH
Higinio Polo. Profesor y escritor. Barcelona.
Martin PRADEL, Abogado y Ancien secrétaire de la Conférence du Barreau de Paris – FRANCIA
Jorge Riechmann, Profesor de Filosofía Moral. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Arias, Profesor de Derecho Penal Internacional, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha.
Carlos Ruiz. ATTAC España
Mari Carmen Sánchez Hernández. Defensora DD HH
Mari Carmen Sánchez Sánchez. Defensora DD HH
Santiago Sanz Álvarez. Directiva APDHE
Elias Sanz Casado. Defensor DD HH
Silvia Schmitz Engelke, Defensora DD HH
Patricia Simón Carrasco. Defensora DD HH
Teresa Torres, Defensora DD HH
Silvia Tubert, Defensora DD HH
Lydia Vicente, Abogada, Defensora de los DD HH
Andrés Viñas Orta. Defensor DD HH
María Jesús Fernández Alonso. Defensora DD HH
Crisanta Rey Ordás. Defensora DD HH
Maximino Rey Rey. Defensor DD HH
Paloma Maldonado. Psicóloga.
Jonathan Contreras. Jurista.
José Ugaz Sánchez-Moreno.Penalista. Procurador anticorrupción y profesor de derecho.
Dr. Francisco Ercilio Moura. responsable del Programa de Derechos Centro de Derechos y Desarrollo – CEDAL.
Eduardo A. Coello. Politólogo – HONDURAS
Erasto Reyes Abogado, miembro del Bloque Popular-FNRP-Honduras – HONDURAS
Lorena Zelaya. Resistencia Honduras – HONDURAS
Mario Eduardo Minera Monzón – GUATEMALA
Jime Nani Mosquera. Infostelle – PERÚ
Walter Schweninger. Vocero del Grupo de Trabajo Internacional y Paz de los Verdes de Alemania.
Juan Antonio Gimbernat. Presidente de la Federación de Asociaciones de Defensa y Promoción de los Derechos Humanos-España
Rachel LINDON Abogada y Ancien Secrétaire de la Conférence – FRANCIA
Delphine JAAFAR. Abogada y Ancien Secrétaire de la Conférence du Barreau de Paris – FRANCIA
Francisco Torres Pérez. Sociólogo y profesor del Departamento de Sociología y Antropología Social de la Universidad de Valencia.
Prof. José García Añón. Vicedecano de innovación educativa y calidad y Coordinador de la Facultad de Derecho para la Convergencia al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. Universidad de Valencia.
Susana E. Vior. Docente investigadora Universidad Nacional de Luján Argentina
Fouad Lahssaini. Député fédéral. Groupe Ecolo-Goen! Bélgica
Oscar Castellucci. Docente universitario. Presidente de la Asociación Civil Martín Castellucci.
María Adela Antokoletz. Docente. Hermana de Daniel, detenido desaparecido en la ESMA el 10/11/1976.
Jose Antonio García Saez. Defensor DD HH
Manuel Lambert. Conseiller juridique de la Ligue des Droits de l’Homme (Belgique), Président de la Coordination des ONG pour les droits de l’enfant (Belgique) et assistant en droit à l’Université libre de Bruxelles.
Catherine Absalom. Miembro de la FIDH. Defensora DD HH.
Jimena Reyes. Abogada. Defensora DD HH.
Lola Borges Blázquez. Jurista y traductora. Defensora DD HH
Maria Ximena Cañón Dorado. Abogada colombiana. Defensora DD HH
María Roca. Politóloga. Defensora DD HH.
Jaume Gosalbez. Periodista. Defensor DD HH.
Vanesa Vacas. Socióloga. Defensora DD HH.
Luis Guillermo Pérez. Secretario General FIDH y Secretario ejecutivo de CIFCA.
Benjamin Deman Abogado. BÉLGICA
Guyot Madeleine. Defensora DD HH. BÉLGICA
Sharon Weill, Phd Candidate in international law, University of Geneva. SUIZA.
Jules Fafchamps. Sindicalista. BÉLGICA.
Florence Paul. Defensor DD HH.
Liliane Cordova. Defensora DD HH. FRANCIA
Florent Schaeffer. Defensor DD HH. Paris.
Nicole Kahn Lyon. Defensora de los derechos humanos y miembro de la unión judía francesa por la paz que milita por los derechos de los palestinos. FRANCIA.
Kristiina Vainio. M. Pol. Sc. (international law). FINLANDIA
Professor Marian Hobson CBE. Fellow of the British Academy. Cambridge.
Dr. Anat Matar. The Dept. of Philosophy. Tel Aviv University. Tel Aviv 69978. Israel
Enrique Santiago Romero. Abogado.
Ruth Kñallinsky Dra. Dpto. Incidencia y Comunicación Fundación CEAR –Habitáfrica.
Alice Cherki Psiquiatra y Psiconalalista. FRANCIA
Juan Carlos Capurro. Presidente del CAJ y viceporesidente de la FIDH.
AdAr Grayevsky. Defensor DD HH.
Judith Butler. Professor. University of California, Berkeley
Prof. François Lecercle. University of Paris-Sorbonne, Paris IV
Rela Mazali. Defensora DD HH. Israel
Kerstin Reemtsma. Defensora DD HH.
Yuval Yonay. Senior Lecturer. Department of Sociology and Anthropology University of Haifa. ISRAEL
Jaime San De Bremond. Abogado de DD HH
Jean-Michel Frodon. Ecrivain, professeur, critique, ancien directeur des Cahiers du cinéma.
Gustavo Gómez. Abogado del Ilustre Colegio de Abogados de Barcelona. Defensor DD HH
Mauricio Forero. Profesor de Derechos Humanos. Mission de Derechos Humanos en Haiti-MICIVIH
Tom Koenigs, Chairman of the Committee on Human Rights and Humanitarian Aid of the German Bundestag
Footnotes
[1] Article 446 of the Spanish penal code says: “the judge or magistrate who, intentionally, pronounces a ruling or emits a judgment that is not fair will be sanctioned: … 3. by a fine of twelve to twenty-four months and special disqualification from public employment for a period of between ten and twenty years” .

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